Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Cissus quadrangularis, हड़जोड़, হাড়জোড়া, ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ, ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട, నల్లేరు, பிரண்டை, เพชรสังฆาต, Devil's Backbone


Cissus quadrangularis L.
Family: Vitaceae

Synonyms: Cissus bifida Schumach. & Thonn., Cissus edulis Dalzell, Cissus quadrangula L., Cissus quadrangula Salisb., Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy, Cissus tetragona Harv., Cissus tetraptera Hook.f., Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn., Saelanthus quadragonus (L.) Forssk., Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight, Vitis succulenta Galpin

Vernacular names:
  • English: Devil's Backbone
  • Bangla: হাড়জোড়া
  • Hindi: हड़जोड़ hadjod
  • Kannada: ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ mangaravalli
  • Kinyarwanda: Umubogora
  • Malayalam: ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട
  • Odia: ହାଡ଼ଭଙ୍ଗା 
  • Sinhala: Hiressa
  • Sanskrit: Amara, Asthisamhara
  • Tamil: பிரண்டை pirandai
  • Telugu: నల్లేరు nalleru
  • Thai: เพชรสังฆาต
  • Vietnamese: Hồ đằng bốn cạnh
Description: Vine, rambling shrub, herbaceous, climbing, scandent, sprawling, jointed stems, quadrangular and four-winged succulent stems rooting at the nodes, young branches winged bearing long slender tendrils, simple leaves broadly ovate, flowers in clusters at nodes, perianth green with red lobes, apiculate berries, tender leaves as vegetable.

Aphrodisiac, carminative [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. University]

Used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. Presence of calcium oxalate crystals, irritating action of the fresh stem on the skin. Powdered root and stem specifically used in bone fracture. Root decoction antioxidant, widely used as remedy for hemorrhoids, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, peptic ulcer disease, dysentery; crushed stem and roots used as a plaster for bone fractures, analgesic, haemostatic. Whole plant infusion purgative. Succulent stem crushed with onion given orally for asthma; stem juice applied on swellings, body pains and bone fracture; stem juice for irregular menstruation and scurvy, dropped into ear for earache and into nose for epistaxis; stem paste for fertility, applied on rheumatic disorders; stem decoction in lime water taken as stomachic and alterative; paste of shoot for burns and wounds. Ash of leaves and shoots in bowel complaints and digestive troubles. Veterinary medicine, leaves infusion for diarrhea of calves; leaf paste applied on bone fracture; leaves ground with those of Pedalium murex and the decoction given in fevers; leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa along with those of Cissus quadrangularis pounded and given for ephemeral fever; stem fed in the bone fracture of cattle; stem juice with salt given to cure anorexia; roots of Indigofera trita along with stem bark of Balanites aegyptiacus, stem of Cissus quadrangularis and Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given in impaction; stem and the leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum pounded and the extract applied over the fractured area and bandaged; stem extract given in dysentery; stem paste applied on sprains and swellings; warm crushed plant applied locally on wounds of oxen. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Phytoconstituents: Quadrangularins A-C, 5-amyrin, 5-amyrone, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol,parthenocissine A and others.  Whole plant is used for urinary schistosomiasis in Mali.[A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach]

A  mixture  of stem  powder  and wheat flour  in  1:1  ratio  is  fed  to animals  to  cure  fractures  and  dislocations  of  bones. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

The leaves and young shoots are powerful alteratives.  The juice of the stem is a reputed  cure  for  scurvy  and irregular  menstruation.  The juice is dropped into  the  ear for otorrhoea and into the nose for epistaxis.  The root is used as a specific for fractures of bones. In Tanganyika, the leaf is used for treating ulcers and wounds, the root for  myalgia and  the juice of the stem for earache. In central Africa, a decoction of the stem is given for Menorrhagia, palpitation  of the heart and as an anthelmintic.  Externally, a poultice of the plant is applied for  muscular pains.  This plant  is also used  as a fish poison. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

The fresh leaves and pounded stems are applied to burns, wounds and also to saddle sores of horses, camels, etc. The stem is also used for gastrointestinal complaints or as a stomachic sometimes taken in the form of the succulent stem boiled and sugared. In Guinea the stems and leaves are given to cattle to induce milk and in Senegal a decoction of the stems and leaves is used as a friction and wash in pains with fever and in malaria. [Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa]

270 Published articles of  Cissus quadrangularis

Monday, July 10, 2017

Henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, Kurasaaie vamu, jusquiane, Meimendro, dente cavallino, Meimendro,

Hyoscyamus niger L.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Hyoscarpus niger (L.) Dulac, Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit., Hyoscyamus auriculatus Ten., Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W.Schmidt, Hyoscyamus lethalis Salisb., Hyoscyamus niger var. annuus Sims, Hyoscyamus niger var. chinensis Makino, Hyoscyamus officinarum Crantz, Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow, Hyoscyamus persicus Boiss. & Buhse, Hyoscyamus pictus Roth, Hyoscyamus syspirensis K.Koch, Hyoscyamus verviensis Lej., Hyoscyamus vulgaris Neck.
  • English: Henbane
  • Bengali : Khorasani ajwan 
  • Gujrati : Khurasanee ajma, Khurasanee ajmo 
  • Hindi : Khurasanee ajvayan, 
  • Kannada : Khurasanee, Ajawaana 
  • Malayalam : Khurasaanee, Paarasika, Yavaani 
  • Marathi : Khurasanee ova 
  • Punjabi : Khurasanee ajvain, Bangidewana 
  • Tamil : Kurasanee Vomam 
  • Telugu : Kurasanee vamu, Khurasanee omam 
  • Urdu : Ajvayanee Khursanee 
  • Arabic: بنج أسود
  • Armenian: Բանգի սև
  • Azerbaijani: Qara batbat
  • Basque: Erabelar
  • Bulgarian: Черна попадийка
  • Chinese: 天仙子
  • Czech: Blín černý
  • Danish: Bulmeurt
  • Esperanto: Nigra hiskiamo
  • Estonian: Koera-pöörirohi
  • Finnish: Hullukaali, villikaali
  • French: jusquiane
  • Galician: Meimendro
  • German: Schwarzes Bilsenkraut
  • Hindi: Khurasani ajwain
  • Icelandic: Nornajurt
  • Ido: Hiskiamo
  • Irish: Gafann
  • Italian: dente cavallino
  • Kashubian: Czôrnô kadzelnica
  • Kazakh: Қара меңдуана
  • Korean: 사리풀
  • Latin: Folia sive Herba Hyoscyami
  • Nepali: र्खुसानी ज्वाँनु Khursani jwanu, बजरभाङ्ग Bajarabhaang
  • Norwegian: Villrot
  • Persian: بذرالبنج (گیاه)
  • Polish: bielun
  • Romanian: bob
  • Russian: белена ерная
  • Sanskrit: Parseek yawani
  • Spanish: hierba loca
  • Swedish: bolmört
  • Upper Sorbian: Čorny woblěd
  • Welsh: Llewyg yr iâr

Description: Plants annual or biennial, up to 1.5 m tall, pubescent to hairy. Leaves sessile, 5-12.5 x 2.8-7.5 cm, ovate-oblong, sinuate to pinnately lobed, ± semi-amplexicaul, glandular-pubescent, especially on the nerves and margins. Calyx 14-16 mm long, up to 26 mm in fruit, campanulate to infundibuliform, ± urceolate in fruit, nervose, glandular-pilose; lobes triangular, aristate. Corolla (18-) 20-30 mm long, infundibuliform, pale yellow, with brown-purple nerves; lobes ± obtuse, unequal; tube glandular-pilose to the outside. Stamens subexserted, unequal. Lower part of filament pilose, purplish. Style exceeding the stamens in length, purplish. Pyxidium 11-13 mm long, ± pitcher-shaped; operculum usually of a darker colour. Seeds ± 1.2 mm long, reniform, rugose-tuberculate, brown.
Used for dysmenorrhea, premature ejaculation, nocturnal discharges, abdominal colic, abdominal distention, abdominal lumps, calculus, cough, asthma, insomnia, insanity, spasmodic pain, and joint pain (therapeutic uses based on texts from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries). Seeds are used as a sedative, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anthelmintic (prevent griping pain when added to cathartics), astringent and anodyne in Ayurvedic and Unani systems. Leaves are preferred in other systems. Seeds possess narcotic properties, and in large doses produces poisonous effects like datura poisoning. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Hallucinogenic, toxic. This plant, in the roots, leaves and seeds, contains several alkaloids, and it has caused rare poisoning in humans, cattle, poultry and swine. Its hallucinogenic effects have led people to eat the seed or chew the flowers, often with detrimental results, the major affect of hyoscyamine is depression of the central nervous system. Ingestion causes anticholinergic syndrome with stimulatory and hallucinatory effects. Post- mortem examination showed degeneration of heart muscle and cyanosis of mucous membranes. Whole plant vermifuge. Fried leaves applied over the forehead to relieve pain and headache. Leaves and flowering tops used in asthma. Leaves and fruits decoction given in whooping cough and asthma. Powdered seeds and leaves given as sedative and antispas- modic, for asthma, intestinal worms, whooping cough. Seeds astringent, used as an anaesthetic and for relieving muscu- lar spasm and pain, toothache, diarrhea, neuralgia, hysteria, asthma, cough, skin inflammation; powdered seeds given to subside pain, toothache and asthma. Magico-religious plant, ritual, for exorcism, Lamas burn the seeds and blow the smoke into the patient’s mouth. Veterinary medicine, leaf extract applied in sprains. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Relieve spasm and pain, cause tranquilization. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

71 Published articles of  Hyoscyamus niger

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Taxus baccata, Common Yew, Eibe, Կենի հատապտղային, طقسوس توتي, Обикновен тис, Harilik jugapuu, ურთხელი, ヨーロッパイチイ, Idegran, Тис ягодный

Taxus baccata L.
Family: Taxaceae

Synonyms: Cephalotaxus adpressa Beissn., Cephalotaxus brevifolia Beissn., Cephalotaxus tardiva Siebold ex Endl., Taxus adpressa Carrière, Taxus aurea K.Koch, Taxus baccata var. adpressa-aurea A.Henry, Taxus baccata f. aurea (J.Nelson) Pilg., Taxus baccata var. cavendishii Hornibr., Taxus baccata var. dovastoniana Leight., Taxus baccata f. dovastoniana (Leight.) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-aurea Sénécl., Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-aureovariegata Beissn., Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-variegata Gordon, Taxus baccata var. elegantissima C.Lawson, Taxus baccata f. elegantissima (C.Lawson) Beissn., Taxus baccata var. erecta Loudon, Taxus baccata f. erecta (Loudon) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. ericoides (Carrière) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. expansa (Carrière) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. glauca Jacques ex Carrière, Taxus baccata f. glauca (Jacques ex Carrière) Beissn., Taxus baccata f. linearis (Carrière) Pilg., Taxus baccata var. lutea Endl., Taxus baccata f. lutea Rehder, Taxus baccata var. macrocarpa Lavallée, Taxus baccata f. pendula (J.Nelson) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. pendula-graciosa (Overeynder) Beissn., Taxus baccata var. pendula-overeynderi Fitschen, Taxus baccata var. prostrata Bean, Taxus baccata var. pyramidalis C.Lawson, Taxus baccata f. pyramidalis (C.Lawson) Beissn., Taxus baccata f. repandens (Parsons) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. semperaurea (Dallim.) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. stricta (C.Lawson) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. variegata Weston, Taxus baccata f. variegata (Weston) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. xanthocarpa Kuntze, Taxus baccifera Theophr. ex Bubani, Taxus columnaris K.Koch, Taxus communis J.Nelson, Taxus communis var. pyramidalis (hort. ex Ravenscr., C. Lawson & et al.) Nelson, Taxus disticha Wender. ex Henkel & Hochst., Taxus dovastonii Carrière, Taxus elegantissima Carrière, Taxus elvastonensis Beissn., Taxus empetrifolia Gordon, Taxus erecta Carrière, Taxus ericoides Carrière, Taxus expansa K.Koch, Taxus fastigiata Lindl., Taxus foxii Carrière, Taxus hibernica Hook. ex Loudon, Taxus horizontalis Carrière, Taxus imperialis Gordon, Taxus jacksonii K.Koch, Taxus lugubris Salisb., Taxus marginata Carrière, Taxus michelii Carrière, Taxus microphylla Gordon, Taxus mitchellii Carrière, Taxus monstrosa Gordon, Taxus nana Parl., Taxus parvifolia Wender., Taxus pectinata Gilib., Taxus pendula Carrière, Taxus pyramidalis Carrière, Taxus pyramidalis (hort. ex Ravenscr., C. Lawson & et al.) Severin, Taxus recurvata C.Lawson, Taxus sparsifolia Loudon, Taxus tardiva (Siebold ex Endl.) C.Lawson, Taxus variegata Carrière, Taxus virgata Wall. ex Gordon, Verataxus adpressa (Carrière) Carrière
  • English: Common Yew 
  • Sanskrit: Sukapushpa, Vikarna
  • \Bengali: Birmi, Talish Patra
  • Gujarathi: Gethela Barmi
  • Hindi: Thuner, Talispatra Bhed
  • Kannada: Sthauneyak
  • Malayalam: Thuriangam
  • Marathi: Sthauney Barmi
  • Tamil, Telugu: Talisapatri Bhedam
  • Afrikaans: Yf
  • Alemannisch: Eibe
  • Arabic: طقسوس توتي
  • Armenian: Կենի հատապտղային
  • Azerbaujani: Giləmeyvəli qaraçöhrə
  • Basque: Hagin arrunt
  • Breton: Ivin (gwez)
  • Bulgarian: Обикновен тис
  • Catalan: Teix
  • Chinese: 歐洲紅豆杉
  • Croatian: Tisa (biljka)
  • Czech: Tis červený
  • Danish: Almindelig Taks
  • Dutch: Venijnboom
  • Estonian: Harilik jugapuu
  • Finnish: Euroopanmarjakuusi
  • French: If commun
  • Georgian: ურთხელი
  • German: Europäische Eibe
  • Greek: Ίταμος (φυτό)
  • Hebrew: טקסוס מעונב
  • Hungarian: Közönséges tiszafa
  • Japanese: ヨーロッパイチイ
  • Lithuanian: Europinis kukmedis
  • Nepali: बर्मेसल्ला
  • Norwegian: Barlind
  • Pashto: اروپايي ټاکسوس
  • Persian: سرخدار
  • Polish: Cis pospolity
  • Russian: Тис ягодный
  • Swedish: Idegran
  • Turkish: Yaygın porsuk
  • Ukrainian: Тис ягідний
  • Urdu: یورپی سرخدار
  • Vietnamese: Thanh tùng châu Âu
Used for blood disorders, morbid thirst, moles, burning syndrome, worm infestations, pimples, and tumors (therapeutic uses based on texts from 1000 bc to sixteenth century). Sthauneya belonged to Elādi varga, Karpurādi varga and Chandanādi varga during the  classical period of Ayurveda. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Extremely toxic, death is likely. Taxus baccata has caused poisoning and death in cattle, horses, livestock, pets and birds, and humans. Stem and leaves abortifacient, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, antiinflammatory, purgative, for rheumatism, malaria, epilepsy, coughs, tuberculosis, cold. Tincture from the young shoots used to control headache, giddiness, diarrhea and biliousness. Bark used in cough and cold. Pounded leaves given orally for asthma, bronchial disorders and indigestion. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Rheumatism, malaria, epilepsy, purgative (in south africa) [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue. Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

The leaves contain a volatile oil, tannic and gallic acids, and a resinous substance called toxin. Yew leaves and fruits have been given for their emmenagogue, sedative and anti-spasmodic effects. Pereira says that therapeutically the yew appears to hold an intermediate position between Savin and Digitalis, being allied to the former by its acrid, diuretic and emmenagogue properties, and to the latter by the giddiness, irregular and depressed action of the heart, convulsions and insensibility, which it produces. Yew is, however, reported to have one decided advantage over Digitalis by its effects not accumulating in the system, so that it is a much more manage- able remedy than Digitalis. Besides its use as an emmenagogue and sedative in the same cases as Savin and Digitalis are administered, it has also been employed as a lithic in calculus complaints ; and as an anti-spasmodic in epilepsy and convulsions. According to Dr. Taylor the yew tree is sometimes used by ignorant persons to cause abortion. [Indian medicinal plants]

185 Pulished articles of Taxus baccata

Saturday, July 8, 2017

Cuscuta reflexa, Giant Dodder, kodiyar kundal, Swarna lata, Amarvalli,

Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
Family: Convolvulaceae

Synonyms: Cuscuta elatior Choisy, Cuscuta hookeri Sweet, Cuscuta macrantha G. Don, Cuscuta megalantha Steud.,

Cuscuta reflexa var. grandiflora Engelm., Cuscuta reflexa var. reflexa, Cuscuta verrucosa Sweet, Monogynella reflexa (Roxb.) Holub
  • English name: Giant Dodder
  • Arabic: حامول منعكس
  • Assamese: Amarlati
  • Bengali: Swarna lata
  • Chinese: 大花菟丝子
  • Hindi: अमर बेल Amar bel, आकाश बेल Akashbel, Amarvalli
  • Malayalam: ആകാശവല്ലി, Akasavalli
  • Manipuri: Uri sanamacha
  • Marathi: निर्मली Nirmali
  • Oriya: Kolanirmuli
  • Tamil: கொடியார் கூந்தல் kodiyar kundal
  • Telugu: Sitamma pogunalu

Distribution: A common parasite found on many bushes and trees in hills and in plains of tropical India. A leafless yellow colored thread like complete stem parasite found on many herbs and small shrubs. Flowers small, white, sessile in lateral fascicles; Calyx 5 lobes, subequal, connate at the base, corolla lobes 5,companulate, with a ring of fimbriate lobes at the base, stamens as many as corolla lobes at the mouth of corolla throat, anthers exerted, ovary 2 celled, fruit a capsule.

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant juice poisonous, emetic, purgative, given for abortion, bilious- ness, fevers, jaundice and hematuria; a decoction of fruits of Emblica officinalis  with roots of Solanum indicum and stems of Cuscuta reflexa given in influenza; salted plant juice given in vomiting and purulent discharge from vagina; bark extract of Alstonia scholaris with Cuscuta reflexa and bark of Rhamnus napalensis given to kill intestinal worms; plant infusion as a wash for sores; ash of burnt plant applied to treat cuts, warts and wounds; in polio, ashes ground in mustard oil and the affected part is massaged with the medicated oil; whole plant paste applied to cure swelling of the testicle, reddening of the eyes, to relieve body pain, boils and head- ache; whole plant with Centella asiatica and Vitex peduncu- laris powdered with black peppers given to avoid childbirth; Mallotus philippensis stem bark decoction together with Cuscuta reflexa , stem bark of Mangifera indica and leaves of Dendrocalamus strictus used as bath for the treatment of jaundice. Roots and the whole plant in case of fractures, dis- located bone treated by binding the plant around the affected part. Juice of the stem applied on wounds; crushed stem for jaundice; stem crushed into paste and given to girls to cure menstrual disorders. Stem and leaves juice used to kill head lice. Seeds carminative, anthelmintic, powdered seeds for stomachache and coughs; seeds pasted with water and taken against intestinal worms. Veterinary medicine, crushed whole plant to treat uterine prolapse; plant infusion fed to birds for treating poultry disease; plant paste given against diarrhea of domestic animals; crushed leaves and stem applied on bone fractures and bone dislocation. Plant fed to enemy’s livestock for killing purpose. Medico-religious beliefs, plant and turmeric crushed and massaged on the whole body of weak and thin children. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Whole plant is used against diabetes, against hepatitis, retention of urine, hair fall and dandruff
and against laziness. 
 
1.    Method of use for hepatitis and retention of urine:  Take 8-10 g of the plant and grind that in claypot and slowly add 1 glass of water and then filter it, drink that water twice a day for 40 days, for retention of urine just drink 1-2 glass of that water, urine will pass quickly. 
2.    Method of use for hair fall and dandruff:  Take 15 grams of fresh plant and add 250 mL of hair oil and heat them together gently for 10-15 minutes. Keep them in metal pot together just use that hair oil every day and keep doing that practice for 40 days.
3.    Method of use against laziness:  Just 2-3 grams of the fresh plant grind that and take it in fasting with butter or 15-20 days. [Medicinal Plants of Sindh : Indigenous Knowledge and Scientific Facts]

316 Published articles of Cuscuta reflexa

Friday, July 7, 2017

Viscum album, Амяла белая, Mistelten, Weißbeerige Mistel, Имела, Jemioła pospolita, ヤドリギ, 겨우살이, Ghi trắng, داروش اروپایی

Viscum album L.
Family: Santalaceae
  • English: Druid's Herb, mistletoe
  • Arabic: دبق أبيض
  • Armenian: Ճագում սպիտակ
  • Azerbaijani: Ağ öksəotu
  • Basque: Mihura
  • Belarusian: Амяла белая
  • Bulgarian: Бял имел
  • Catalan: Vesc
  • Chinese: 槲寄生
  • Corsican: Vischju
  • Czech: Jmelí bílé
  • Danish: Mistelten
  • Esperanto: Blanka visko
  • Estonian: Harilik puuvõõrik
  • Finnish: Misteli
  • French: Gui
  • German: Weißbeerige Mistel
  • Greek: Ιξός
  • Hungarian: Fehér fagyöngy
  • Japanese: ヤドリギ
  • Korean: 겨우살이
  • Limburgish: Haamsjeut
  • Lithuanian: Paprastasis amalas
  • Macedonian: Имела
  • Norwegian: Misteltein
  • Persian: داروش اروپایی
  • Polish: Jemioła pospolita
  • Romanian: Vâsc european
  • Russian: Омела белая
  • Serbian: Имела
  • Slovac: Imelo biele
  • Slovenian: Bela omela
  • Swedish: Mistel
  • Turkish: Ökse otu
  • Ukrenian: Омела біла
  • Vietnamese: Ghi trắng
Description: Plant shrubby, yellowish-green; stem jointed, dichotomously branched, swollen at the nodes. Leaves sessile, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, 2.5-7 cm long, 0.5-3.5 cm broad, entire, obtuse, 3-5-nerved. Flowers sessile, in 3-5 flowered fascicles; bracts 2, concave, 2 mm long, obtuse, ciliate. Perianth lobes 3-4, free, 1 mm long, triangular, thick, deciduous. Anthers 4, dehiscing by numerous pores. Ovary. 2 mm long, obovoid; stigma 1 mm long, conical. Berry c. 1 cm broad, globose; seed 5-6 mm long, embedded in a white viscid pulp.

This parasite grows primarily on the trunks of deciduous trees, particularly the apple. Stems are much branched, and the leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, thick, leathery, and usually a pale yellowish-green. The fruit is a sticky white berry. [Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants, 2nd Ed]

An antispasmodic nervine. The infusion is given with benefit in epilepsy, fits, paralysis, and other diseases of the nervous system; it has been employed in tooth and face aches, neuralgia, and similar complaints of the bead and face, but does not appear to have found such successful employment in the latter complaints as in the more serious and distressing ones already enumerated. It is popularly supposed that the mistletoe growing upon the oak is of greater efficacy as a medicine than that growing elsewhere; but in actual practice it is found that no difference exists whatever between that growing upon this particular tree and that derived from any other source of growth. As the properties of mistletoe by exposure to the air become considerably impaired, it should always, after drying, be preserved in as air tight a condition as possible. [Botanic Pharmacopoeia]

Anticancer, cardiac tonic and tonic, : Immunomodulator, cytotoxic and hypogiycemic. [Compendia of World’s Medicinal Flora]

Used in Ayurveda and Unani. Whole plant as a poultice for the treatment of muscular pain; plant decoction given in body ache and joint pain; whole plant paste applied on fractured bone as a plaster. Leaves contraceptive, for infertility and sterility; leaves paste applied on abdomen for abortion. Extract of the leaves and berries in the treatment of hypertension, hysteria and epilepsy. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The leaves of the plant have special value in cases of epilepsy (convulsions during unconsciousness), hysteria (nervous condition marked by alternate crying and laughing, usually during emotional stress), and other nervous conditions. This herb acts as a tonic and is also a narcotic, tending to induce a stupor, sleep or unconsciousness. It has also been recommended for female ailments, including hemorrhages of the uterus, amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation) and dysmenorrhea (painful or difficult menstruation). It has also been recommended as a heart tonic in cases of typhoid fever and has also been suggested for excessive or high blood pressure. [Encyclopedia of medicinal herbs, with the herb-o-matic locator index]

Highly valued as a nervine and antispasmodic. Mistletoe leaves are given in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and other diseases of the nervous system. As an anti-spasmodic and tonic it is used in cardiac dropsy. [Herbal Manual]

Mistletoe is stated to possess hypotensive, cardiac-depressant and sedative properties. Traditionally, it has been used for high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, nervous tachycardia, hypertensive head- ache, chorea and hysteria. Modern use of mistletoe preparations is focused on use as a treatment and as an adjuvant treatment in cancer. Clinical studies of mistletoe preparations have assessed mistletoe preparations as a treatment, or as an adjunctive treatment, in patients with different types of cancers. A small number of other clinical trials have been conducted involving patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and respiratory infections. [Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed]

The main therapeutic value of mistletoe lies in treating high blood pressure, although it has traditionally been used to treat epilepsy, insomnia, and tinnitus. [Herbal Remedies]

Vasodilator, cardiac depressant, tranquiliser, stimulates the vagus nerve which slows the pulse, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, immune enhancer, antineoplastic. Used for hypertension and tachycardia, as a nervine tonic. The extract of leafy twigs is antiinflammatory exerting an action upon capillary permeability and oedema. It stimulates granulation and the neoformation of connective tissue. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

It is given by the Hakims in enlargement of the spleen, in cases of wound, tumour, diseases of the ear, etc. [Indian medicinal plants]

Parts used. Leaf, stem. Traditional uses.   Antihypertension, stomach cancer. [Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea]

The leaves are a stimulating and relaxing antispasmodic nervine. It seems to give its especial influence where it is most needed by the vital force. During parturition when the pains are light, it produces prompt uterine contractions and well anticipates hemorrhage. It is also valuable in all uterine hemorrhages, and assists much in the expulsion of the placenta when retained. As an antispasmodic it will be found useful in the relief of the extra, effort put forth in asthma, epilepsy and other spasmodic conditions. Nervine, tonic and narcotic properties make it of great value in hysteria, St. Vitus Dance and other nervous diseases. [Physio-Medical Therapeutics, Materia Medica and Pharmacy]

1259 Published articles of Viscum album

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

Artemisia japonica, Japanese mugwort, otoko-yomogi, garkrek

 

Artemisia japonica Thunb.
Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Artemisia  cuneifolia  DC.; Artemisia  glabrata  Wallich  ex  Besser;  Artemisia  glabrata, Wight;  Artemisia  japonica  Kitam.;  Artemisia  japonica Lauener;  Artemisia  japonica  Schmidt;  Artemisia  japonica  f.  manshurica  Komarov;  Artemisia  japonica  var. lanata  Pampanini;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  macrocephala Pampanini; Artemisia japonica var. manshurica (Komarov), M.  Kitagawa;  Artemisia  japonica  var.  manshurica  Kom.; Artemisia japonica var. microcephala Pampanini; Artemisia morrisonensis  Hayata  var.  minima  Pampanini;  Artemisia parviflora   Aitchison;  Artemisia  parviflora   Buch.-Ham.  ex Roxb.;  Artemisia  subintegra  Kitamura;  Chrysanthemum japonicum  Thunberg;  Dendranthema  japonense  (Nakai) Kitam.; Oligosporus japonicus (Thunberg) Poljakov)
  • English: Japanese mugwort
  • Azərbaycanca: Yapon yovşanı
  • China: chi tou hao, mou hao, mu hao, wei
  • India: niapfu, pamasi, patee
  • Japan: otoko-yomogi
  • Tibet: garkrek, kirmani, nireha, pamasi
  • Vietnamese: Ngải Nhật
Upper parts of plants used to cure convulsions among children. Leaves cooling, bitter, antiviral, used for making antitoxifying and antifebrile drugs; young leaves wound-healing, to  cure  skin  diseases;  ash  of  leaves  applied  on  wounds  to hasten healing; leaves decoction carminative and vermifuge. Roots for throat-related problems. Leaves and flower heads used as incense and insecticide.[CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

89 Published articles of Artemisia japonica

Hippophae rhamnoides, Sea buckthorn, Dhurchuk, Sanddorn, Argousier, Tyrni, Չիչխան սովորական, Almindelig Havtorn


Hippophae rhamnoides L.
Family: Elaeagnaceae
Synonyms: Argussiera rhamnoides Bubani; Argussiera rhamnoides (L.) Bubani; Elaeagnus rhamnoides Royle;  Elaeagnus  rhamnoides  (L.)  A.  Nelson;  Hippophae rhamnoidea  St.-Lag.;  Hippophaes rhamnoideum  (L.)  St.Lag.; Hippophaes rhamnoideum St.-Lag.; Rhamnoides hippophae Moench
  • English: Sea buckthorn, seaberry
  • Arabic: أبو فايس
  • Armenian: Չիչխան սովորական
  • Azerbaijani: Murdarçayabənzər çaytikanı
  • Bashkir: Һырғанаҡ
  • Belarusian: Абляпіха крушынападобная
  • Bulgarian: Облепиха
  • Catalan: Arç groc
  • Croatian: Pasji trn
  • Czech: Rakytník řešetlákový
  • Danish: Almindelig Havtorn
  • Dutch: Duindoorn
  • Estonian: Harilik astelpaju
  • Finnish: Tyrni
  • French: Argousier
  • Galaician: Espiñeiro marítimo
  • German: Sanddorn
  • Hindi: Dhurchuk, Chumaa, Tarwaa
  • Hungarian: Európai homoktövis
  • Italian:olivella spinosa
  • Kabardian: Къазмакъей
  • Kashubian: Sëdwina
  • Kazakh: Шырғанақ (өсімдік)
  • Kyrgyz:  Кaдимки чычыpкaнaк (Kadimki chychyrkanak)
  • Latvian: Pabērzu smiltsērkšķis
  • Lithuanian: Dygliuotasis šaltalankis
  • Manx: Bugogue varrey
  • Nepali: मलो malo
  • Norwagian: Tindved
  • Pashto: اکبار
  • Persian: سنجد تلخ
  • Polish: Rokitnik zwyczajny
  • Punjabi: Sirmaa
  • Romanian: cătină
  • Russian:oblepicha
  • Serbian: Пасји трн
  • Slovanian: Navadni rakitovec
  • Spanish: Espino Amarillo
  • Swedish: Havtorn
  • Udmurt: Вӧёпу
  • Uzbek:  Chakanda
  • Voro: Nõglapai

Description: Thorny deciduous  shrub or  small tree. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, white-downy beneath. Male flowers yellowish-brown in small catkins that appear before leaves; female in small racemes appearing with the leaves. Fruits globular, orange or red berry.

Shrub, deep penetrating strong root system, thorny branches, juicy ripe fruits edible, fodder for goats, camel and sheep. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The fruit of H. rhamnoides L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions to regulate the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal pains, etc.  It has been well documented to have antioxidant, immunostimulative, regenerative, and antiulcerogenic properties, a protective effect against injuries in mice and effects on hyperlipidemic serum cultured smooth-muscle cells in vitro.  The alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, these extracts were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

The fruits are used as an analgesic, as a remedy for stomach pain, to improve digestion, and to treat scurvy.  A decoction of the fruits is drunk to treat ulcers and is added to baths to prevent skin diseases. Fresh fruits are used to  moisturize the skin, to help heal small wounds and burns, and to treat skin diseases associated with poor metabolism. An  infusion of the leaves is drunk or the leaves are directly applied to the body to treat rheumatism. A decoction of the seeds  is used as a laxative. [Medicinal Plants of Central Asia Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan]

Fruit—astringent, antidiarrhoeal, stomachic, antitussive, antihaemorrhagic. SeaBuckthorn preparationsareused internally for stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer and other illnesses of the alimentary organs; externally in cases of burns, bedsores and other skin complications induced by the treatment with X-rays and other radiations. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Topical  application  of  1.0%  seabuckthorn leaf  extract  statistically  significantly  augmented the healing process, as evidenced by increases in the content of hydroxyproline  and protein as well as the reduction in wound area when compared with similar effects  in response to  treabnent using povidone-iodine ointment (standard care).  The  reduced  glutathione, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities  showed significant increases in seabuckthorn leaf extract-treated wounds as compared to  controls.  The  lipid  peroxide  levels  were significantly  decreased  in  leaf  extract-treated  wounds. The results suggest that aqueous leaf extract of sea buckthorn promotes wound  healing,  which  may  be  due  to  increased  antioxidant  levels in  the  granulation  tissue. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

With high levels of minerals and vitamins A and  C, sea buckthorn’s tart-tasting berries make an  ideal supplement to prevent colds and sore throats. As a natural supplement, the  juice or syrup of  sea buckthorn will  improve resistance to colds, sore throat,  and sinus problems. Rich in antioxidant  bioflavonoids, sea buckthorn supports  capillary and arterial health when taken  long-term. [Herbal Remedies]

Used in Toothache, joint pain,liver, lung and phlegm diseases, menstrual disorders,dysentery, gum infection, blood disorders, diabetes and intestinal parasites. Fruits are edible raw, also used extensively for the preparation of concentrate. [Medicinal Plants of Dolpo]

650 Published articles of  Hippophae rhamnoides

Swertia bimaculata, Twospotted swertia, Akebonoso, zhang ya cai



Swertia bimaculata (Siebold & Zucc.) Hook. f. & Thomson ex C.B. Clarke
Family: Gentianaceae

English: twospotted swertia
Chinese: 獐牙菜, 紫花青叶胆,  zhang ya cai
Japanese: Akebonoso

Uses: Roots for bone fracture, fever. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

20 published articles of  Swertia bimaculata

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Ononis natrix, Sticky restharrow, Geel stalkruid, Gelbe Hauhechel, Yerba culebra, Bugrane fétide, Стальник жёлтый

 
Ononis natrix L.
Family:Fabaceae

English name: Sticky restharrow
Arabic: شبرق أفعى الماء
Catalan: Gavó
Chinese: 黄芒柄花
Dutch: Geel stalkruid
Finnish: Keltaorakko
French: Bugrane fétide
German: Gelbe Hauhechel
Russian: Стальник жёлтый
Spanish: Yerba culebra

Leaves used in toothache [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]


37 Published articles of  Ononis natrix

Monday, June 26, 2017

Andrographis ovata

 
Andrographis ovata (T.Anderson ex Bedd.) Benth. & Hook.f.
Family: Acanthaceae

Synonym: Gymnostachyum ovatum T.Anderson ex Bedd.

Tamil:  periyanangai, periyanangan

Tall robust herb, leaves broadly ovate, pink flowers in panicles
Leaf  paste  used  as  an  antidote;  crushed  leaves  applied  to treat scabies. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]


3 Published papers of Andrographis ovata

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Oroxylum indicum, shyonaka, tattuna, sona, เพกา, තොටිල, Bonglai, ороксилум индийский

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz
Family: Fabaceae

Synonyms: Arthrophyllum ceylanicum Miq., Arthrophyllum reticulatum Blume ex Miq., Bignonia indica L., Bignonia lugubris Salisb., Bignonia pentandra Lour., Bignonia quadripinnata Blanco, Bignonia tripinnata Noronha, Bignonia tuberculata Roxb. ex DC., Calosanthes indica (L.) Blume, Hippoxylon indica (L.) Raf., Oroxylum flavum Rehder, Spathodea indica (L.) Pers.

Common name: Broken Bones Tree, Indian Trumpet Flower, Tree of Damocles
  • Assamese: তোগুনা Toguna
  • Bengali: সোনা sona
  • Hindi: भूत वृक्ष bhut-vriksha, दीर्घवृन्त dirghavrinta, कुटन्नट kutannat, मण्डूक manduk (the flower), पत्रोर्ण patrorna, पूतिवृक्ष putivriksha, शल्लक shallaka, शूरण shuran, सोन or शोण son, वटुक vatuk
  • Kannada: ತಟ್ಟುನ tattuna
  • Konkani: davamadak
  • Malayalam: പലകപയ്യാനി palaqapayyani, വാശ്പ്പാതിരി vashrppathiri, വെള്ളപ്പാതിരി vellappathiri
  • Manipuri: শম্বা Shamba
  • Marathi: टायिटू tayitu, टेटु tetu
  • Oriya: टटेलों tatelo
  • Sanskrit: अरलु aralu, श्योनक shyonaka
  • Tamil: சொரிகொன்றை cori-konnai, பாலையுடைச்சி palai-y-utaicci, பூதபுஷ்பம் puta-puspam (the flower)
  • Telugu: మండూకపరణి manduka-parani, పంపెన pampena, శూకనాసము suka-nasamu, తుందిలము tundilamu, గుంపెన gumpena.
  • Azerbaijani: Hind oroksilumu
  • Chinese: 土黄柏
  • Malay: Bonglai
  • Russian: ороксилум индийский
  • Sinhala: තොටිල
  • Thai: เพกา
  • Vietnamese: Núc nác
Description: Trees up to 10 m or more. Leaves very large, 3-pinnate, 60-180 cm long, imparipinnate, rachis stout ribbed; leaflets opposite, elliptic-ovate, 7-14 x 5-8 cm, entire, subacuminate, base oblique or rounded, nerves inconspicuous above, prominent and minutely pubescent on lower surface. Flowers not seen. Capsule elongated, 30-100 cm, compressed, brown, valves woody. Seeds discoid, with wing 35-40 x 58-60 mm; wing transparent, yellowish-white.

Used in diarrhea due to nervous breakdown, cough, tastelessness, diseases of the urinary bladder, rheumatism, diseases of the abdomen, loss of movement of the leg, neurological disorders, diseases of the ear, and inflammation (therapeutic uses based on texts from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries). Bark: bitter tonic, diuretic, powder or infusion diaphoretic. Root bark: astringent, used in diarrhea and dysentery. Stem bark: anti-inflammatory, used in rheumatism. Root: decoction prescribed in dropsy. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Anti-inflammatory, Antipyretic, Antirheumatic, Antitussive, Astringent, Expectorant, Female Tonic, Stomachic, Vulnerary. Oroxylum bark tea is used traditionally as a uterine tonic after childbirth. It is also used in treatment of diarrhea, arthritis, and measles. Oroxylum seeds and bark are prescribed in cases of sore throat and cough, especially when accompanied by chills, fever, or other cold symptoms. The root, stem and bark is an antidiarrheal and a tonic for the four elements. This herb is extremely popular among the Hill-Tribes, who use it for treatment of indigestion, stomachache, inflammation, kidney and bladder disease, spleen disease, malaria, and cancer. [A Thai Herbal: Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony]

Used in Ayurveda. Lipoxygenase inhibitors. Bark vermicide, tonic, antiinflammatory, antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, astringent, antidysenteric, diuretic, antiseptic, antimicrobial; crushed bark boiled and the extract taken to cure jaundice; bark paste heated and applied in muscular pain, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

In China, the seeds of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. are used to assuage liver and stomach discomfort, and to heal ulcers and boils. In Burma, Vietnam and the Philippines, the bark is used to treat dysentery and rheumatism. In Malaysia, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to assuage stomach discomfort, treat rheumatism and to heal wounds. In Thailand, the fruits are consumed as vegetables, whereas the stem bark is used to treat arthritis. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

The root-bark and stem-bark possess antiallergic properties and are used in treating allergic diseases, urticaria, jaundice, asthma, sore throat, laryngitis, hoarseness, gastraigia, diarrhoea, dysentery, infantile erythema and measles. The normal dose is 8 to 16g of bark in the form of a decoction, extract or powder. The seeds are active on chronic cough and gastraigia: 5 to 10g daily in the form of a decoction or powder. An alcoholic maceration of fresh bark is applied externally for lacquer allergic dermatitis. [Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam]

367 Published articles of  Oroxylum indicum

Stevia rebaudiana, Estèvia, 스테비아, ステビア, หญ้าหวาน, شیرین‌برگ, Madhu patra

 
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni
Family:  Asteraceae
Synonyms: Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni, Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Hemsl.

English: Stevia, Sweet Leaf, Sweet Honey Leaf
Guarani: caa êhê
Catalan: Estèvia
Czech: Stévie sladká
Danish: Sukkerplante
Persian: شیرین‌برگ
Korean: 스테비아
Hungarian: Jázminpakóca
Malayalam: പഞ്ചാരക്കൊല്ലി, മധുരമുള്ള ഇലകൾ.
Dutch: Honingkruid
Japanese: ステビア
Russian: Стевия медовая
Slovak: Stévia cukrová
Tamil: சீனித்துளசி cheeni thulasi, சர்க்கரைத் துளசி  sarkarai thulasi
Thai: หญ้าหวาน
Vietnamese: Cỏ ngọt
Chinese: 甜叶菊
Sanskrit: Madhu patra




Dried leaf  as a sugar substitute for diabetics, hypoglycemics, and weight-conscious individuals. By weight, it is up to 300 times sweeter than sugar but has virtually no calories. Diabetics and hypoglycemics should always use stevia as a sweetener in herbal teas rather than honey or sugar, as it does not cause spikes in blood sugar. [A Thai Herbal: Traditional Recipes for Health and Harmony]

Antimicrobial, Hypoglycemic (lowers blood sugar, levels), Lowers blood pressure. The herb’s sweet taste and hypoglycemic action make  it a valuable remedy in early onset diabetes. It can also help to prevent  tooth decay, aid weight loss, and  improve immune resistance in yeast infections. [Herbal Remedies]

500 published articles of Stevia rebaudiana

Saturday, June 24, 2017

Physalis grisea, Meksikontomatillo, Grey Ground Cherry, Strawberry Tomato, физалис земляниный

Physalis grisea (Waterf.) M. Martínez
Family: Solanaceae

Synonym: Physalis pubescens var. grisea Waterf.

Grey Ground Cherry, Strawberry Tomato, Dwarf cape gooseberry, Downy ground cherry
Finnish: Meksikontomatillo
Russian: физалис земляниный


2 Published articles of  Physalis grisea

Solanum villosum, hairy nightshade, Morelle noire, zirna galbena, Donsnachtschade, Raktakovidaraha

Solanum villosum Mill.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Solanum miniatum Bernh. ex Willd. , Solanum nigrum var. humile (Bernh. ex Willd.) C.Y. Wu & S.C. Huang
  • English: hairy nightshade, red nightshade, woolly nightshade
  • Sanskrit: कोविदारः Kovidaraha, रक्तकोविदारः Raktokovidaraha
  • Welsh: Codwarth coch
  • German: Gelbfrüchtiger Nachtschatten
  • Dutch: Donsnachtschade
  • Swedish: Gul nattskatta
  • Chinese: 红果龙葵
  • Finnish: Myskikoiso
  • French: Morelle ailée, Morelle noire
  • Romanian: zirna galbena
Description: Herbs erect, 40-60 cm tall, much branched; pubescence of simple, sometimes glandular hairs. Stems pubescent, often angular. Petiole 5-10 mm, winged; leaf blade ovate to elliptic, 3-7 × 2-4 cm, sparsely pubescent, base cuneate, decurrent, margin entire, sinuate, or coarsely dentate, apex acute. Inflorescences extra-axillary, umbellate; peduncle 1 cm, unbranched. Pedicel 4-6 mm. Calyx 2 × 1-1.5 mm, puberulent; lobes obtuse, less than 1 mm, ciliate, sinuses rounded. Corolla white or purplish, sometimes drying yellowish, 5-7 × 8-10 mm; lobes ovate-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, ciliate, strongly spreading and reflexed. Filaments 1.5-1.8 mm, pubescent; anthers ca. 2 mm. Style 3-4.5 mm, pilose at base. Fruiting pedicel 1-1.5 cm, pubescent. Berry red, orange, or yellow, often bright, globose, 6-8 mm in diam. Seeds discoid, ca. 1 mm.

Veterinary medicine, crushed fruit given for mouth and nose diseases of chicken. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

46 Published articles of Solanum villosum

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Origanum majorana, maruvam, sweet marjoram, murwam, Havemerian, Aedmajoraan, Amaracum, マジョラム,

Origanum majorana L.
Family:Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Amaracus majorana (L.) Schinz & Thell., Majorana dubia (Boiss.) Briq., Majorana fragrans Raf., Majorana hortensis Moench, Majorana majorana (L.) H.Karst., Majorana mexicana M.Martens & Galeotti, Majorana ovalifolia Stokes, Majorana ovatifolia Stokes, Majorana suffruticosa Raf., Majorana tenuifolia Raf., Majorana tenuifolia Gray, Majorana uncinata Stokes, Majorana vulgaris Gray Origanum confertum Savi, Origanum dubium Boiss., Origanum majorana var. majoranoides (Willd.) Nyman, Origanum majorana var. tenuifolium Weston, Origanum majoranoides Willd., Origanum odorum Salisb., Origanum salvifolium Roth, Thymus majorana (L.) Kuntze.

Indian names: marupatra, marva, murwa, Sukhaatmaka, Marubaka, Phanijjaka, Marzanjosh.
  • Hindi: मरुआ
  • Kannada: ಮರುಗ maruga
  • Telugu:  మరువం
  • Arabic: مردقوش كبير
  • Azerbaijani: Mərzə
  • Belarusian: Маяран
  • Bulgarian: Майорана
  • Bosnian: Mažuran
  • Catalan: Marduix
  • Czech: Majoránka zahradní
  • Danish: Havemerian
  • Estonian: Aedmajoraan
  • Greek: Ματζουράνα
  • Irish: Oragán cumhra
  • Hebrew: אזוב תרבותי
  • Kazakh: Майоран
  • Latin: Amaracum
  • Japanese: マジョラム
  • Polish: Lebiodka majeranek
  • Romanian: Maghiran
  • Russian: Майоран
  • Chinese: 墨角蘭
Plant  infusion  sudorific,  stimulant,  emmenagogue,  galactagogue, in hysteria, paralysis, toothache, sprain, insomnia. Ceremonial, ritual, ingredient of Patra pooja in different religious pooja ceremonies, in Ganesh-pooja. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

The leaves, flowers, and tender stems are employed for flavoring syrups, stews, dressings, liqueurs, sauces, vinegars, soups, omelets, sausages, stuffings, poultry, meats and seafoods. In herbal form, marjoram has been used in folk medicine as a remedy for asthma, indigestion, headache, rheumatism, and toothache. Several varied folk uses of marjoram in Middle America are outlined for such conditions as hysteria, epilepsy, muscular pain, pain of childbirth, flatulence, and ear problems. As noted by Morton, many of these uses were common in Europe and were introduced into the New World by the Spaniards. The herb has formed part of sneezing powders. The oil of marjoram has been used much like that of oregano (O. vulgare) in traditional medicine. The volatile oil has been
employed to treat flatulence, colic, and rheumatism. It has also been applied externally as a liniment for sprains and bruises, used as a stimulant  and tonic, and employed to alleviate tooth aches by placing a few drops On cotton placed on the tooth. Marjoram oil was used to promote perspiration in those suffering from measles, and was also regarded as a treatment for spasms. There are no important modem medicinal uses for marjoram. [Culinary Herbs]

Used in respiratory diseases, colds, gynaecological disorders [Ethnomedicinal Plants Revitalization of  Traditional Knowledge of Herbs]

Origanum majorana , sweet marjoram, is used as a sedative. Marjoram eases stiff joints and muscle spasms, including tics, excessive coughing, menstrual cramps, and headaches (especially migraines). It also slightly lowers high blood pressure. Testing has shown it to be one of the most effective fragrances in relaxing brain waves. As a result, it makes excellent calming massage oil, delightful when combined with the softer lavender. It has specific properties that fight the viruses and bacteria responsible for colds, flu, or laryngitis. In healing salves and creams, it also soothes burns, bruises, and inflammation. O. majorana is also an antioxidant that naturally preserves food. [Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine Traditional System, Ethics, Safety, Efficacy, and Regulatory Issues]

Antifungal, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Expectorant, Stimulant respiratory and digestive infection with strongly antiseptic and anti- microbial constituents, oregano infusion or tincture is a useful expectorant in bronchial infection, chesty coughs, and respiratory catarrh. Digestive problems such as gastroenteritis and candida infection will also benefit from the herb’s tonic activity, especially where bloating and food intolerance are present. For mouth and throat infections, including oral thrush, use the infusion as a mouthwash or gargle, then swallow. [Herbal Remedies]

Emmenagogue, antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant. Leaves and seed— astringent, antispasmodic. Warm infusion of herb—promotes suppressed menstrual flow. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

Used in cooking. marjoram has a long history of medicinal use. By the Creeks as an anti-dote to poisoning and snake venom, by the Romans for stomach disorders and more recently for digestive. Antispasmodic and sedative properties. However, the oil is reputedly not suitable to use by pregnant women. The oil is extracted by steam distillation from the leaves. [Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy]

269 Published articles of  Origanum majorana

Centaurium erythraea, centaury, Marktusindgylden, rohtosappi, Echt duizendguldenkruid, ასისთავა, Аууондархуыз, Золототысячник обыкновенный



Centaurium erythraea Rafn
Family:Gentianaceae

Synonyms: Centaurella dichotoma Delarbre, Centaurium capitatum (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Borbás, Centaurium centaurium (L.) W.Wight ex Piper Centaurium corymbosum (Dulac) Druce, Centaurium erythraea subsp. austriacum (Ronniger ex Fritsch) Kožuharov & Petrova, Centaurium erythraea subsp. austriacum Ronniger, Centaurium erythraea var. capitatum (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Melderis, Centaurium erythraea var. fasciculare (Duby) Ubsdell, Centaurium erythraea var. laxum (Boiss.) Mouterde ex Charpin & Greuter, Centaurium erythraea var. masclansii O.Bolòs & Vigo, Centaurium erythraea var. subcapitatum (Corb.) Ubsdell, Centaurium erythraea var. sublitorale (Wheldon & Salmon) Ubsdell, Centaurium latifolium (Sm.) Druce, Centaurium lomae (Gilg) Druce, Centaurium minus Garsault Centaurium minus Moench, Centaurium minus var. austriacum (Ronniger ex Fritsch) Soó, Centaurium minus subsp. austriacum (Ronniger) O. Schwarz, Centaurium minus var. transiens (Wittr.) Soó, Centaurium umbellatum Gilib. Centaurium umbellatum f. album Sigunov, Centaurium umbellatum subsp. austriacum Ronniger ex Fritsch, Centaurium umbellatum subsp. austriacum Ronniger, Chironia centaurium (L.) F.W.Schmidt, Chironia centaurium var. fascicularis Duby, Erythraea capitata Willd. ex Roem. & Schult., Erythraea centaurium (L.) Pers., Erythraea centaurium (L.) Borkh., Erythraea centaurium var. acutiflora Boiss., Erythraea centaurium var. grandiflora Griseb., Erythraea centaurium f. itatiaiaensis Dusén, Erythraea centaurium var. laxa Boiss., Erythraea centaurium var. subcapitata Corb., Erythraea centaurium var. sublitoralis Wheldon & Salmon, Erythraea centaurium var. transiens Wittr., Erythraea corymbosa Dulac, Erythraea germanica Hoffmanns. & Link, Erythraea latifolia Sm., Erythraea lomae Gilg, Erythraea rhodensis Boiss. & Reut., Erythraea shuttleworthiana Rouy, Erythraea vulgaris Gray, Gentiana centaurium L., Gentiana gerardii F.W.Schmidt, Gentiana palustris Lam., Gonipia linearis Raf., Hippocentaurea centaurium Schult., Libadion variabile Bubani.
  • Common name: Common centaury
  • Azerbaijani: Kiçik qızılçətir
  • Balgarian: Червен кантарион
  • Bashkir: Һарыгүҙ
  • Chinese: 日本鬼燈檠
  • Croatian:Štitasta kičica
  • Czech: Zeměžluč okolíkatá
  • Danish: Marktusindgylden
  • Finnish: rohtosappi
  • French: Erythrée
  • Georgian: ასისთავა
  • German: Echt duizendguldenkruid
  • Hungarian: Kis ezerjófű
  • Kazakh: Шатырша толғақшөп
  • Latin: Herba Centaurii Minoris
  • Latvian: Čemuru augstiņš
  • Lithuanian: Skėtinė širdažolė
  • Ossetic: Аууондархуыз
  • Persian: قنطوریون صغیر
  • Portuguese: Fel-da-terra
  • Romanian: fierea pămîntului
  • Romanian: Țintaură
  • Russian: Золототысячник обыкновенный
  • Samogitian: Šėrdažuolė
  • Serbian: Кичица
  • Sloenian: Navadna tavžentroža
  • Slovak: Zemežlč menšia
  • Swedish: tusengyllenört
Description: This is an erect biennial herb which reaches half a meter in height. It grows from a small basal rosette and bolts a leafy, erect stem which may branch. The triangular leaves are arranged oppositely on the stem and the erect inflorescences emerge from the stem and grow parallel to it, sometimes tangling with the foliage. Each inflorescence may contain many flowers. The petite flower is pinkish-lavender and about a centimeter across, flat-faced with yellow anthers. The fruit is a cylindrical capsule.

Cholagogue,  diaphoretic,  digestive,  emetic,  febrifuge,  stomachic, tonic, bitter; applied to wounds and sores. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

In  dyspepsia.  Also  jaundice,  together  with  Bayberry  bark.  Three  or  four wineglass doses daily of the 1 ounce to 1 pint infusion. [Herbal Manual]

Centaury is reputed to act as a bitter, aromatic and stomachic. Traditionally, it has been used for anorexia and dyspepsia.[Herbal Medicines 3rd Ed.]

Centaury is used for disorders of the upper digestive tract, mainly dyspepsia. It is also used in anorexia and has reported anti-inflammatory activity. It should not be taken by patients with peptic ulceration. [Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interactions]

Centaury may  be used whenever  a  digestive and  gastric  stimulant  is  needed.  It  is  indicated  primarily for appetite loss (anorexia) associated  with liver  weakness. Centaury is helpful in  dyspepsia  and  any  other  condition involving sluggish  digestion. [Medical Hrebalism - The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine]

105 Published articles of Centaurium erythraea

Monday, June 19, 2017

Willow-leaved Justicia, Justicia gendarussa, Nili Nirgundi, Karu nochchi, Yapana marron, Jagatmadan


Justicia gendarussa Burm.f.
Family: Acanthaceae

Synonyms: Dianthera subserrata Blanco, Dicliptera rheedei Kostel., Ecbolium gendarussa (Burm.f.) Kuntze, Ecbolium subserratum Kuntze, Gendarussa vulgaris Nees, Justicia dahona Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
  • English: willow-leaved justicia
  • Assamese: tita-bahak, Bishalya Karani
  • Asturian: Xusticia gendarussa
  • Bengali: বাকস bakas, বাসা basa, Jagatmadan
  • Chinese: 尖尾风
  • French: Yapana marron
  • Hindi: अडूसा adusa, बाकस bakas, बासा basa, नीली निर्गुण्ठी nili nirgunthi, वाशा vasha, Kala Bashimb
  • Kannada: ಕರಿ ಲಕ್ಕಿ kari lakki, Karinekki, Karalakkigidde
  • Malayalam: കറു നൊച്ചി karu nochchi, Vathamkolli
  • Marathi: बाकस bakas, काळा अडुळसा kala adulasa
  • Oriya: nila nirgundi
  • Sanskrit: कसनः kasanah, वैध्यसिंहा vaidyasinha
  • Sudanese: Handarusa
  • Tamil: சேபாலிகை cepalikai, கருநொச்சி karu-nocci, காவி kavi, கோபி kopi, வாடாக்கொடி vata-k-koti, வாடைக்குற்றி vataikkurri
  • Telugu: గంధరసము gandharasamu, నల్లవావిలి nallavaavili, నీలనిర్గుండి niilanirgundi
  • Urdu: اڙوسا adusa, باکس bakas, باسا basa
  • Vietnamese: Thanh táo

Description: Shrubs, branches dark purple, terete, smooth. Leaves 7-10 x 2 cm, linear or oblong-lanceolate, apex acute or obtuse, base acute, chartaceous, glabrous, lateral nerves 5-7 pairs, bluish; petiole 2-3 mm long. Spikes terminal, to 8 cm long, narrow; bracts linear, 4 mm long. Flowers white; calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, 5 mm long; corolla white with purple streaks, 1.5 cm long; ovary and style puberulus. Capsule 12 mm long, glabrous.

A potent anti-HIV compound more powerful than the drug AZT according to Journal of Natural Product article.

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Whole plant hypotensive, emetic, febrifuge; plant paste in coconut oil applied against rheumatic pain. Dried seed powder mixed with fruit decoction and used as insect repellent. Roots used for diuresis, diarrhea and as antidote; bark antipyretic, emetic, anti-cough, diuretic and anti-amebic, in the treatment of wounds and allergy; root extract mixed with water and taken as antidote, anti-venom. Leaves taken internally against cough, body pain, fever and as a cardio tonic, and used externally to treat inflammation, wounds and allergy; a poultice of leaves applied on inflammation; leaves infusion given in headache, hemiplegia and facial paralysis; leaf juice applied to check bleeding, also poured into ears for earache; leaves decoction a remedy for bloody diarrhea and fevers; leaves used in preparations to treat gonorrhea, amenorrhea and malaria, headache, rheumatism and pain; leaves and shoots diaphoretic, a decoction given in chronic rheumatism. Veterinary medicine, pounded leaves applied on bone fracture. Ritual, ceremonial, whole plant, with Ocimum sp. and Euphorbia neriifolia L., used for worship; leafy twigs used in the worship; leaves of Justicia gendarussa soaked with water and leaves of Dendrocnide stimulans, the water used in a ceremony for good hunting and harvest. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Febrifuge, diaphoretic, emetic, emmenagogue. Infusion of leaves—given internally in cephalalgia, hemiplegia and facial paralysis. Fresh leaves—used topically in oedema and rheumatism. Bark—
emetic. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

In Indonesia, Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. is used to induce vomiting. In Malaysia, a decoction of 50 g of roots is used to treat rheumatic arthritis; boiled with ginger rhizome and lime, it is used to alleviate bleeding cough. A decoction of the leaves is used to combat fever, promote menses, assuage stomach discomfort, check haemoptysis, alleviate cough, treat asthma, and to relieve the bowels of costiveness. The fresh leaves are pounded and used externally to treat pyoderma, lumbago and rheumatism. A paste of leaves mixed with vinegar is used to assuage toothache. Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. is also used during the hot stages of malaria to combat fever and to treat leucorrhea. InVietnam, the plant is used to resolve tumors, promote appetite, and to invigorate health. In India, the plant is used to treat bronchitis, soothe inflammation, and to promote digestion. [Medicinal Plants: Drugs For The Future? ]

Treats rheumatism and fever, antipyretic, effects on nitric oxide and tumor necrosis, antiinflammatory, antihypersensitivity, and antihistaminic effects. [Taiwanese Native Medicinal Plants: Phytopharmacology and Therapeutic Values]

97 published articles of  Justicia gendarussa

Thursday, June 15, 2017

Clerodendrum wallichii, Clerodendrum laevifolium, Nodding Clerodendron, Wallich's glorybower

 
Clerodendrum laevifolium Blume
Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Clerodendrum nutans Wall. ex D.Don, Clerodendrum ellipticum Zipp. ex Span., Clerodendrum wallichii Merr.,
English: Nodding Clerodendron, Wallich's glorybower
Chinese: 垂茉莉
French: Clérodendron de Wallich

Description: Shrubs or small trees, 2-4 m tall, erect. Branchlets 4-angled, ± winged, glabrous. Petiole ca. 1 cm; leaf blade oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 11-18 X 2.5-4 cm, subleathery, glabrous, base narrowly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate to acute; veins 7 or 8 pairs, adaxially slightly distinct. Inflorescences pendent thyrses, 20-33 cm, glabrous, axis and peduncle 4-angled or winged; bracts small, linear to awl-shaped. Calyx red to purple, ca. 1 cm, tube very short; lobes ovate-lanceolate, 7-8 mm. Corolla white, tube ca. 1.1 cm; lobes ovate, 1.1-1.5 cm. Stamens and style exserted. Fruiting calyx red to purple, inflated, thickened. Drupes yellow-green when young, black and shiny at maturity,

A  paste  of  roots  of  Claoxylon  khasianum  together  with Ardisia  paniculata,  Clerodendrum  wallichii,  Mussaenda macrophylla and Trevesia palmata applied for the treatment of abdominal troubles and tumour. This plant considered a symbol of peace. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

4 Published articles of  Clerodendrum wallichii

Salvia splendens, Tulisalvia, サルビア, Xác pháo, 깨꽃, مریم‌گلی آتشین

 
Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult.
Family: Lamiaceae

Synonyms: Fenixanthes splendens (Sellow ex Schult.) Raf., Jungia splendens , Salvia brasiliensis Spreng. , Salvia colorans Benth., Salvia issanchou auct.

  • Common name: Scarlet Sage, Red Salvia
  • Catalon: Coral·lí
  • Chinese: 一串红
  • Finnish: Tulisalvia
  • German: Feuersalbei
  • japanese: サルビア
  • Korean: 깨꽃
  • Lithuanian: Raudonžiedis šalavijas
  • Manipuri: মোৰোকলৈ Moroklei
  • Persian: مریم‌گلی آتشین
  • Polish: Szałwia błyszcząca
  • Russian: Шалфей сверкающий
  • Swidish: Praktsalvia
  • Tongan: Teʻekosi sivilaise
  • Turkish: Ateş çiçeği
  • Vietnamese: Xác pháo
230 published articles of Salvia splendens

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Lupinus angustifolius, narrow-leaved blue lupine, Blauwe lupine, Lupin de Cosentino, Lupino Azzurro, Люпин узколистный, altramuzazul

Lupinus angustifolius L.Family: Fabaceae

Synonym: Lupinus canaliculatus Sweet    
  • English: narrow-leaved blue lupine
  • Arabic: ترمس ضيق الأوراق
  • Chinese: 狭叶羽扇豆
  • Czech: Vlčí Bob Úzkolistý
  • Danish: Smallbladet lupin
  • Dutch: Blauwe lupine
  • Finnish: Sinilupiini
  • French: Lupin de Cosentino, Lupin de Cosentini
  • German: Blaue Lupine, Schmalblattrige Lupine
  • Hebrew: תורמוס צר עלים
  • Hungarian: Keskenylevelu Csillagfurt, Kek Csillafurt
  • Italian: Lupino Azzurro
  • Norwegian: Smallupin
  • Polish: Łubin wąskolistny
  • Portuguese: Tremoceiro-de-folhas-estreitas, Tremoceiro-azul
  • Russian: Люпин узколистный
  • Spanish: altramuzazul
  • Swedish: Blålupin, Fingerlupin
  • Turkish: Mavi aci bakla
  • Welsh: Bysedd-y-blaidd culddail

36 Pharmacy / pharmacology related published articles of  Lupinus angustifoliu

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Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana