Monday, July 10, 2017

Henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, Kurasaaie vamu, jusquiane, Meimendro, dente cavallino, Meimendro,

Hyoscyamus niger L.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Hyoscarpus niger (L.) Dulac, Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit., Hyoscyamus auriculatus Ten., Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W.Schmidt, Hyoscyamus lethalis Salisb., Hyoscyamus niger var. annuus Sims, Hyoscyamus niger var. chinensis Makino, Hyoscyamus officinarum Crantz, Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow, Hyoscyamus persicus Boiss. & Buhse, Hyoscyamus pictus Roth, Hyoscyamus syspirensis K.Koch, Hyoscyamus verviensis Lej., Hyoscyamus vulgaris Neck.
  • English: Henbane
  • Bengali : Khorasani ajwan 
  • Gujrati : Khurasanee ajma, Khurasanee ajmo 
  • Hindi : Khurasanee ajvayan, 
  • Kannada : Khurasanee, Ajawaana 
  • Malayalam : Khurasaanee, Paarasika, Yavaani 
  • Marathi : Khurasanee ova 
  • Punjabi : Khurasanee ajvain, Bangidewana 
  • Tamil : Kurasanee Vomam 
  • Telugu : Kurasanee vamu, Khurasanee omam 
  • Urdu : Ajvayanee Khursanee 
  • Arabic: بنج أسود
  • Armenian: Բանգի սև
  • Azerbaijani: Qara batbat
  • Basque: Erabelar
  • Bulgarian: Черна попадийка
  • Chinese: 天仙子
  • Czech: Blín černý
  • Danish: Bulmeurt
  • Esperanto: Nigra hiskiamo
  • Estonian: Koera-pöörirohi
  • Finnish: Hullukaali, villikaali
  • French: jusquiane
  • Galician: Meimendro
  • German: Schwarzes Bilsenkraut
  • Hindi: Khurasani ajwain
  • Icelandic: Nornajurt
  • Ido: Hiskiamo
  • Irish: Gafann
  • Italian: dente cavallino
  • Kashubian: Czôrnô kadzelnica
  • Kazakh: Қара меңдуана
  • Korean: 사리풀
  • Latin: Folia sive Herba Hyoscyami
  • Nepali: र्खुसानी ज्वाँनु Khursani jwanu, बजरभाङ्ग Bajarabhaang
  • Norwegian: Villrot
  • Persian: بذرالبنج (گیاه)
  • Polish: bielun
  • Romanian: bob
  • Russian: белена ерная
  • Sanskrit: Parseek yawani
  • Spanish: hierba loca
  • Swedish: bolmört
  • Upper Sorbian: Čorny woblěd
  • Welsh: Llewyg yr iâr

Description: Plants annual or biennial, up to 1.5 m tall, pubescent to hairy. Leaves sessile, 5-12.5 x 2.8-7.5 cm, ovate-oblong, sinuate to pinnately lobed, ± semi-amplexicaul, glandular-pubescent, especially on the nerves and margins. Calyx 14-16 mm long, up to 26 mm in fruit, campanulate to infundibuliform, ± urceolate in fruit, nervose, glandular-pilose; lobes triangular, aristate. Corolla (18-) 20-30 mm long, infundibuliform, pale yellow, with brown-purple nerves; lobes ± obtuse, unequal; tube glandular-pilose to the outside. Stamens subexserted, unequal. Lower part of filament pilose, purplish. Style exceeding the stamens in length, purplish. Pyxidium 11-13 mm long, ± pitcher-shaped; operculum usually of a darker colour. Seeds ± 1.2 mm long, reniform, rugose-tuberculate, brown.
Used for dysmenorrhea, premature ejaculation, nocturnal discharges, abdominal colic, abdominal distention, abdominal lumps, calculus, cough, asthma, insomnia, insanity, spasmodic pain, and joint pain (therapeutic uses based on texts from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries). Seeds are used as a sedative, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anthelmintic (prevent griping pain when added to cathartics), astringent and anodyne in Ayurvedic and Unani systems. Leaves are preferred in other systems. Seeds possess narcotic properties, and in large doses produces poisonous effects like datura poisoning. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Hallucinogenic, toxic. This plant, in the roots, leaves and seeds, contains several alkaloids, and it has caused rare poisoning in humans, cattle, poultry and swine. Its hallucinogenic effects have led people to eat the seed or chew the flowers, often with detrimental results, the major affect of hyoscyamine is depression of the central nervous system. Ingestion causes anticholinergic syndrome with stimulatory and hallucinatory effects. Post- mortem examination showed degeneration of heart muscle and cyanosis of mucous membranes. Whole plant vermifuge. Fried leaves applied over the forehead to relieve pain and headache. Leaves and flowering tops used in asthma. Leaves and fruits decoction given in whooping cough and asthma. Powdered seeds and leaves given as sedative and antispas- modic, for asthma, intestinal worms, whooping cough. Seeds astringent, used as an anaesthetic and for relieving muscu- lar spasm and pain, toothache, diarrhea, neuralgia, hysteria, asthma, cough, skin inflammation; powdered seeds given to subside pain, toothache and asthma. Magico-religious plant, ritual, for exorcism, Lamas burn the seeds and blow the smoke into the patient’s mouth. Veterinary medicine, leaf extract applied in sprains. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Relieve spasm and pain, cause tranquilization. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

71 Published articles of  Hyoscyamus niger
1.    Adverse reaction of Parasika Yavani (Hyoscyamus niger Linn): Two case study reports Aparna, K., A.J. Joshi, and M. Vyas, Ayu, 2015. 36(2): p. 174-6.
2.    Photosynthetic capacity and ion accumulation in a medicinal plant henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) under salt stress Ashraf, M., Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality-Angewandte Botanik, 2004. 78(2): p. 91-96.
3.    Bioactive non-alkaloidal secondary metabolites of Hyoscyamus niger Linn. seeds: a review Begum, A.S., Research Journal of Seed Science, 2010. 3(4): p. 210-217.
4.    Hyoscyamal, a.n.t.l.f.H.n.L.B., A. Sajeli, et al., Natural Product Research, 2009. 23(7): p. 595-600.
5.    Study of anti-inflammatory, a.a.a.a.o.s.o.H.n.a.i.o.a.n.c.B., Sajeli, et al., Fitoterapia, 2010. 81(3): p. 178-184.
6.    Size and alkaloid content of seeds in induced autotetraploids of Datura innoxia, D.s.a.H.n.B., S., Pharmaceutical Biology, 2001. 39(5): p. 329-331.
7.    Reproductive abilities in induced autotetraploids of Datura stramonium L. and Hyoscyamus niger L. (Solanaceae) Berkov, S., Phytologia Balcanica, 2001. 7(1): p. 147-151.
8.    CULTIVATION STUDIES OF THE SOLANACEOUS DRUGS .2. THE EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL AND SOIL REACTION FERTILIZERS ON THE PRODUCTION YIELDS AND TOTAL ALKALOIDAL CONTENT OF ATROPA-BELLADONNA AND HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER Brewer and L.D. Hiner, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association-Scientific Edition, 1950. 39(10): p. 586-591.
9.    VERNALIZATION AND FLOWER INITIATION OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L - ONTOGENIC STUDIES Diomaiutobonnand, J., J.Y. Houivet, and C. Picard, Bulletin De La Societe Botanique De France-Lettres Botaniques, 1980. 127(5): p. 427-442.
10.    Clinical outcomes in children with hyoscyamus niger intoxication no receiving physostigmine therapy Doneray, H., Z. Orbak, and C. Karakelleoglu, European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2007. 14(6): p. 348-350.
11.    TROPINONE REDUCTASE IN ROOT CULTURES OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER ATROPA-BELLADONNA AND DATURA-STRAMONIUM Draeger, B., Planta Medica, 1990. 56(6): p. 499-499.
12.    PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PSEUDOTROPINE FORMING TROPINONE REDUCTASE FROM HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER ROOT CULTURES Drager, B., T. Hashimoto, and Y. Yamada, Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 1988. 52(10): p. 2663-2667.
13.    Uber den Einfluss von Dungemitteln auf den Alkaloidgehalt der Blatter von Hyoscyamus niger L Elan, Z.D., Heil Und Gewurzpflanzen, 1931. 13((3/4)): p. 122-130.
14.    Hyoscyamine and scopolamine production of black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) infected with Pseudomonas putida and P. fluorescens strains under water deficit stress Ghorbanpour, M., et al., Planta Medica, 2010. 76(12): p. 1234-1234.
15.    Gastrointestinal, s.a.a.u.b.r.e.o.H.n.a.m.t.d.b.o.m.r.a.C.c.G., Anwarul Hassan, et al., Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 2008. 22(1): p. 87-99.
16.    PROSPECTS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER CULTIVATION IN THE HILLS OF UTTAR PRADESH INDIA Gupta, L.K. and S.C. Shah, Indian Drugs, 1985. 22(4): p. 184-186.
17.    SCOPOLAMINE PRODUCTION IN SUSPENSION-CULTURES AND REDIFFERENTIATED ROOTS OF HYOSCYAMUS NIGER Hashimoto, T. and Y. Yamada, Planta Medica, 1983. 47(4): p. 195-199.
18.    The effect of methanolic extract of Hyoscyamus niger L. on seizure induced by picrotoxin in mice Heidari, et al., Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2006. 27: p. 315-316.
19.    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL ALKALOIDS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER-D Hoffmann, J. and W. Poethke, Pharm Zentralh, 1967. 106(6): p. 357-366.
20.    Optimization of root proliferation medium for Hyoscyamus niger L Hong, M.L.K., et al., Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2010. 4(24): p. 2710-2718.
21.    Detection of elicitation effect on Hyoscyamus niger L. root cultures for the root growth and production of tropane alkaloids Hong, M.L.K., et al., Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 2012. 17(3): p. 7340-7351.
22.    Production of tropane alkaloids in Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane) hairy roots grown in bubble-column and spray bioreactors Jaremicz, Z., et al., Biotechnology Letters, 2014. 36(4): p. 843-853.
23.    TROPINE ALKALOIDS PRODUCTION BY HAIRY ROOT CULTURES OF DATURA-STRAMONIUM AND HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER Jaziri, M., et al., Phytochemistry, 1988. 27(2): p. 419-420.
24.    Cardiovascular inhibitory effects of Hyoscyamus niger Khan, A.U. and A.H. Gilani, Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 2008. 30(4): p. 295-300.
25.    In vivo Studies on the Bronchodilatory and Analgesic Activities of Hyoscyamus niger and Aspalathus linearis Khan, A.-u. and A.-H. Gilani, Latin American Journal of Pharmacy, 2010. 29(5): p. 777-782.
26.    Anti-convulsant effect of alcoholic Hyoscyamus niger L. seed extract on PTZ model of kindling in male mice Kiasalari, Z., et al., Razi Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011. 18(85): p. 27-33.
27.    THIOPHOSPHORIC ACID DERIVATIVES OF ETHYLAMINE, D.-M., AND L-PROLINE ETHYL ESTERS .4. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES IN SEEDS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER Klee, F. C. and E.R. Kirch, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1962. 51(6): p. 544-&.
28.    Henbane Kreitmair, H., Pharmazie, 1947. 2((9)): p. 423-423.
29.    Influence of heterosis, g.a.a.v.o.c.t.a.i.b.h.H.n.L.L., R. K. and S.P.S. Khanuja, Indian Journal of Genetics & Plant Breeding, 2005. 65(2): p. 155-157.
30.    Induced heterotic genetic diversity in black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) Lal, R.K., S.P.S. Khanuja, and H.O. Misra, Indian Journal of Genetics & Plant Breeding, 2005. 65(1): p. 63-64.
31.    RADIATION-INDUCED HYPERDIPLOIDY IN HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L Lavania, U.C., R.K. Lal, and J.R. Sharma, Experientia, 1985. 41(8): p. 1079-1080.
32.    ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY OF TROPANE ALKALOIDS AND FERTILITY IN ARTIFICIAL AUTOTETRAPLOIDS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L Lavania, U.C. and S. Srivastava, Euphytica, 1991. 52(2): p. 73-78.
33.    ENHANCED PRODUCTIVITY OF TROPANE ALKALOIDS AND FERTILITY IN ARTIFICIAL AUTOTETRAPLOIDS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L Lavania, U.C. and S. Srivastava, Euphytica, 1991. 52(2): p. 73-77.
34.    CYTOGENETICS OF FERTILITY IMPROVEMENT IN ARTIFICIAL AUTOTETRAPLOIDS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L Lavania, U.C., S. Srivastava, and J. Sybenga, Genome, 1991. 34(2): p. 190-194.
35.    PAST OCCURRENCE OF HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L (SOLANACEAE) IN FINLAND ACCORDING TO THE MACROFOSSIL FINDS Lempiainen, T., Annales Botanici Fennici, 1991. 28(4): p. 261-272.
36.    Research on Hyoscyamus niger Li, J., et al., Chinese Archives of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2012. 30(3): p. 615-618.
37.    Functional genomic analysis of alkaloid biosynthesis in Hyoscyamus niger reveals a cytochrome P450 involved in littorine rearrangement Li, R., et al., Chemistry & Biology, 2006. 13(5): p. 513-520.
38.    Steroidal glycosides from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger L Lunga, I., et al., Natural Product Communications, 2008. 3(5): p. 731-734.
39.    Chemical structure of hyoscyamosides D and D(1) - spirostanol glycosides from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger L Lunga, I., et al., Planta Medica, 2008. 74(9): p. 1044-1044.
40.    CULTIVATION STUDIES OF THE SOLANACEOUS DRUGS .5. A NOTE ON A METHOD FOR INCREASING THE GROWTH OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER Luopa, W. and W.R. Brewer, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association-Scientific Edition, 1952. 41(1): p. 47-48.
41.    Lignanamides and nonalkaloidal components of Hyoscyamus niger seeds Ma, C.Y., W.K. Liu, and C.T. Che, Journal of Natural Products, 2002. 65(2): p. 206-209.
42.    Withanolides from Hyoscyamus niger seeds Ma, C.Y., I.D. Williams, and C.T. Che, Journal of Natural Products, 1999. 62(10): p. 1445-1447.
43.    A NOTE ON THE EFFECTS OF GIBBERELLINS ON ALKALOIDAL CONTENT OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER Masuda, J.Y. and G.H. Hamor, Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1959. 48(6): p. 361-361.
44.    METABOLISM OF HYGRINE IN ATROPA, H.A.P.M., B. A. and J.G. Woolley, Phytochemistry, 1979. 18(1): p. 189-190.
45.    GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF SCOPOLAMINE AND HYOSCYAMINE IN HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L DURING ONTOGENESIS Mika, E.S. and B.L. Wuchu, Lloydia, 1970. 33(4): p. 495-&.
46.    Amino acid sequences of ferredoxins from Atropa belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger: Their similarities to those in other tropane-alkaloid-containing plants Mino, Y., et al., Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2005. 28(8): p. 1535-1538.
47.    THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS ON THE GROWTH AND ALKALOIDAL CONTENT OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER LINN Prasad, S., Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association-Scientific Edition, 1946. 35(4): p. 121-127.
48.    INFLUENCE OF TIME OF APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND ALKALOIDAL CONTENT OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER LINN Prasad, S., Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association-Scientific Edition, 1947. 36(6): p. 180-184.
49.    Influence of calcium on the tropane alkaloid production and riboflavine excretion in the root cultures of Hyoscyamus niger Pudersell, K., et al., European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2007. 32(1): p. S33-S34.
50.    Plant nutritional elements and tropane alkaloid production in the roots of henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) Pudersell, K., et al., Pharmaceutical Biology, 2003. 41(4): p. 226-230.
51.    Study of the flavin pigment riboflavine in the medium of the root cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L Pudersell, K., et al., European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2003. 19: p. S29-S30.
52.    Inorganic ions in the medium modify tropane alkaloids and riboflavin output in Hyoscyamus niger root cultures Pudersell, K., et al., Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2012. 8(29): p. 73-77.
53.    EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO ASSESS THE ANTI HELMINTHIC EFFECT OF PARYUSHITA-AVARI SEETA KASHAYA COLD INFUSION OF PARASEEKA YAVANI HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER IN-VITRO Rao, N.H., Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1982. 44(1): p. 31-31.
54.    THE STRUCTURE OF THE FLOWER OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER LINN Rohatgi, S. and J.W. Fairbairn, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 1950. 2(5): p. 286-303.
55.    Hyosgerin, a.n.o.a.c., from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger Sajeli, B., et al., Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2006. 54(4): p. 538-541.
56.    Antiparkinsonian Effects of Aqueous Methanolic Extract of Hyoscyamus niger Seeds Result From its Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory and Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Potency Sengupta, T., et al., Neurochemical Research, 2011. 36(1): p. 177-186.
57.    PRODUCTIVITY AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF AN UNBRANCHED MUTANT IN HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L Sharma, J.R., et al., Plant Breeding, 1986. 97(4): p. 375-378.
58.    INDUCED POLYGENIC CHANGES OCCURRING SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH MAJOR GENE CHANGES IN BLACK HENBANE (HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L) Sharma, J.R., et al., Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 1992. 85(4): p. 445-450.
59.    POTENTIAL OF GAMMA-RADIATION ENHANCING THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF TROPANE ALKALOIDS IN BLACK HENBANE (HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER L) Sharma, J.R., et al., Euphytica, 1989. 40(3): p. 253-258.
60.    Genetics of flowering time and plant height in black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) Sharma, J.R., et al., Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 1999. 21(4): p. 1006-1010.
61.    ALKALOIDS OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER AND DATURA-STRAMONIUM Sharova, E.G., S.Y. Aripova, and O.A. Abdilalimov, Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, 1977. 1: p. 126-127.
62.    Evaluation of Hyoscyamus niger L. extracts for antibacterial activity Singh, S.K. and V.D. Pandey, Plant Archives, 2009. 9(1): p. 97-100.
63.    HISTORY AND BIOLOGY OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER IN SWEDEN Svensson, R. and M. Wigren, Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 1989. 83(1): p. 29-45.
64.    Transformation of pollen embryo-derived explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Hyoscyamus niger Tu, S., et al., Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 2005. 81(2): p. 139-148.
65.    Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos in Hyoscyamus niger by seed water-soaking Tu, S.J., R.S. Sangwan, and B.S. Sangwan-Norreel, Scientia Horticulturae, 2005. 106(3): p. 440-445.
66.    Riboflavin excretion from the excised roots of Hyoscyamus niger Vardja, T., et al., Pharmaceutical Biology, 2004. 42(4-5): p. 353-359.
67.    PRODUCTION OF SCOPOLAMINE BY NORMAL ROOT CULTURE OF HYOSCYAMUS-NIGER Woo, S.H., J.M. Park, and J.W. Yang, Biotechnology Letters, 1995. 17(9): p. 921-926.
68.    Engineering tropane biosynthetic pathway in Hyoscyamus niger hairy root cultures Zhang, L., et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2004. 101(17): p. 6786-6791.
69.    Simultaneous determination of atropine, s., and anisodamine from Hyoscyamus niger L. in rat plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetics study Zhang, Peiting, et al., Journal of Separation Science, 2014. 37(19): p. 2664-2674.
70.    A new steroidal glycoside from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger Zhang, W., et al., Natural Product Research, 2013. 27(21): p. 1971-1974.
71.    Phytotoxicity of Lignanamides Isolated from the Seeds of Hyoscyamus niger Zhang, W.-N., J.-G. Luo, and L.-Y. Kong, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012. 60(7): p. 1682-1687.

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Clerodendrum philippinum Clerodendrum phlomidis Clerodendrum serratum Clerodendrum splendens Clerodendrum wallichii Coccinia grandis Cocculus hirsutus Cocculus laurifolius Cochlospermum religiosum Coix lacryma-jobi Colebrookea oppositifolia Coleus aromaticus Colocasia esculenta Combretum indicum Commelina benghalensis Commelina maculata Commelina paludosa Commiphora mukul Commiphora wightii Conocarpus lancifolius Consolida ajacis Convolvulus pluricaulis Cordyline fruticosa Corydalis cornuta Cosmos sulphureus Costus speciosus Cotinus coggygria Couroupita guianensis Crinum asiaticum Crocus sativus Crossandra infundibuliformis Crotalaria alata Crotalaria pallida Crotalaria prostrata Croton klotzschianus Croton scabiosus Croton tiglium Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptolepis dubia Cryptostegia grandiflora Cucumis sativus Cupressus torulosa Curcuma amada Curcuma longa Cuscuta reflexa Cyananthus lobatus Cyanthillium cinereum Cycas revoluta Cyclanthera pedata Cymbopogon nardus Cynodon dactylon Cyperus laevigatus Cyperus malaccensis Cyperus rotundus Dactyloctenium aegyptium Dactylorhiza hatagirea Dalbergia latifolia Datisca cannabina Datura metel Datura stramonium Daucus carota Delphinium ajacis Delphinium denudatum Delphinium elatum Dendrobium densiflorum Dendrobium ovatum Derris scandens Desmodium concinnum Desmodium gangeticum Desmodium heterocarpon Desmodium multiflorum Desmodium triflorum Dicliptera paniculata Didymocarpus pedicellatus Dillenia indica Dimorphocalyx glabellus Dimorphoteca ecklonis Dioscorea alata Dioscorea polygonoides Diospyros malabarica Dipteracanthus patulus Dipteracanthus prostratus Dolichos biflorus Dregea volubilis Drimia indica Drosera peltata Duranta erecta Dysoxylum binectariferum Dysoxylum gotadhora Dysphania ambrosioides Echinocereus pentalophus Echinops niveus Echium plantagineum Edgeworthia gardneri Eichhornia crassipes Elaeagnus umbellata Elaeocarpus ganitrus Elephantopus scaber Eleutheranthera ruderalis Elsholtzia fruticosa Emblica officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos minor Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Tylophora indica Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana